PE Compilation Timestamps vs. forensics

March 11, 2019 in File Formats ZOO, Forensic Analysis, Malware Analysis

If you use PE Viewers, Editors, Dumpers for forensic purposes, you are most likely using them to extract a compilation timestamp from a binary – to determine when a specific file was compiled.

There is a little ‘gotcha’ here.

Some of these tools show the timestamps as UTC, some localize them to your timezone. This is far from ideal. Without being sure, you may be writing down incorrect information in your report.

We can fix it.

If you don’t know the algorithm your tool of choice is using to display the time you can quickly test it.


As per the PE documentation, the Compilation timestamp is:

Date and time stamp value. The value is represented in the number of seconds that have elapsed since midnight (00:00:00), January 1, 1970, Universal Coordinated Time, according to the system clock. The time stamp can be printed by using the C runtime (CRT) time function.’

So, there is no better way to test your fav. programs other than using atest executable with a timestamp set to 0, and observe the results (make sure you change your timezone to a different one from UTC!).

If the result is 1970-01-01 00:00:00 then your tool is using UTC. If it is different, then it’s a local time, and perhaps in some cases, it may be wrong (better test with two different tools). As such, you may even see compilation year 1969!

Quick test shows that:

  • Die, IDA, Efd, PE Studio – use local time


  • PE Bear, PPEE, VirusTotal – use UTC

After I published this post, Brian provided additional comment (thx!):

I would also take note of daylight saving time. Offset of UTC changes from your local time zone.

And here is the test .exe I used, in case you need it.

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